Federal Sentencing Guidelines

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In 2007, police arrested Travis Beckles after recovering a sawed-off shotgun in his residence. See United States v. Beckles, 565 F.3d 832, 837–38 (11th Cir. 2009). At trial, the jury found Beckles guilty under 18 U.S.C. § 922(g)(1) for possession of a...

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In 1993, the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania convicted Percy Dillon of a number of federal crimes relating to his possession of crack cocaine. See US v. Dillon, 572 F.3d 146, 147 (3d Cir. 2009). Applying the...

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In early 2000, Brian Michael Gall, began selling methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“MDMA” or ecstasy) as part of a drug distribution ring in Iowa. U.S. v. Gall, 446 F.3d 884, 885 (8th Cir. 2006). Gall would purchase MDMA in 1,000 tablet increments, and then...
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Lopez v. Gonzales, 417 F.3d 934 (8th Cir. 2005)

Jose Antonio Lopez is a permanent resident of the United States. A South Dakota state court convicted Lopez of aiding and abetting the possession of a controlled substance, a felony crime in South Dakota....

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In 2003, Petitioner Jason Pepper was charged with and pled guilty to a conspiracy to distribute methamphetamine. See U.S. v. Pepper, 412 F.3d 995, 996 (8th Cir. 2005) (“Pepper I”). At the time, Pepper was 24 years old and had no prior convictions. See...

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[Questions Presented] [Issue] [Facts] [Discussion] [Analysis] Issue

Does using Sentencing Guidelines promulgated after the time of a convicted defendant’s crime in sentencing that defendant violate the Constitution’s ban on retroactive laws?

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In 2003 the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms commenced an investigation of InterOrdnance, a gun dealing business. Brief for United States at 2. The Bureau determined that InterOrdnance brand “parts kits,” which could be assembled into PPSH 41...

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Alejandra Tapia was arrested while crossing into California from Mexico after a border officer found her smuggling two illegal aliens in her vehicle’s modified gas tank. See Brief for Petitioner, Alejandra Tapia at 2; Brief of United States Supporting...

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Oral argument: October 4, 2004
Appealed from: United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit (Booker), United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit (Fanfan)

Criminal procedure, Sixth amendment, federal sentencing...
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In this case, the Supreme Court will address the disagreement between the United States government and Efrain Santos and Benedicto Diaz, who were prosecuted for money laundering a decade ago. The dispute involves whether the government rightfully...