7 U.S. Code § 1421 - Price support
The Secretary shall provide the price support authorized or required herein through the Commodity Credit Corporation and other means available to him.
Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the amounts, terms, and conditions of price support operations and the extent to which such operations are carried out, shall be determined or approved by the Secretary. The following factors shall be taken into consideration in determining, in the case of any commodity for which price support is discretionary, whether a price-support operation shall be undertaken and the level of such support and, in the case of any commodity for which price support is mandatory, the level of support in excess of the minimum level prescribed for such commodity: (1) the supply of the commodity in relation to the demand therefor, (2) the price levels at which other commodities are being supported and, in the case of feed grains, the feed values of such grains in relation to corn, (3) the availability of funds, (4) the perishability of the commodity, (5) the importance of the commodity to agriculture and the national economy, (6) the ability to dispose of stocks acquired through a price-support operation, (7) the need for offsetting temporary losses of export markets, (8) the ability and willingness of producers to keep supplies in line with demand and (9), in the case of upland cotton, changes in the cost of producing such cotton.
Compliance by the producer with acreage allotments, production goals and marketing practices (including marketing quotas when authorized by law), prescribed by the Secretary, may be required as a condition of eligibility for price support. In administering any program for diverted acres the Secretary may make his regulations applicable on an appropriate geographical basis. Such regulations shall be administered (1) in semiarid or other areas where good husbandry requires maintenance of a prudent feed reserve in such manner as to permit, to the extent so required by good husbandry, the production of forage crops for storage and subsequent use either on the farm or in feeding operations of the farm operator, and (2) in areas declared to be disaster areas by the President under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.], in such manner as will most quickly restore the normal pattern of their agriculture.
The level of price support for any commodity shall be determined upon the basis of its parity price as of the beginning of the marketing year or season in the case of any commodity marketed on a marketing year or season basis and as of January 1 in the case of any other commodity.
This Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§ 1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.
The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, known as the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§ 5121 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of Title 42 and Tables.
1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–707, substituted “the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act” for “Public Law 875, Eighty-first Congress”.
1985—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–198 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).
1964—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 88–297 added cl. (9).
1954—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 28, 1954, § 206, provided a program for diverted acres.
Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 28, 1954, § 207, added subsec. (e).
Pub. L. 102–237, title XI, § 1101, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1906, as amended by Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(NN), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1098; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(NN), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859, provided that:
Act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, § 1, 63 Stat. 1051, provided:
Act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, § 414, 63 Stat. 1057, provided in part that:
Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, § 1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219,67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.
Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.
Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.
Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.
Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.
Pub. L. 106–224, title II, § 257(a)–(d), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 424, 425, limited the per-person and total amounts payable from the Commodity Credit Corporation to compensate producers with covered land with respect to losses from long-term flooding during the 2000 crop year.
Pub. L. 106–224, title II, § 259, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 426, as amended by Pub. L. 106–472, title III, § 315, Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2081, restored the eligibility of individuals otherwise eligible for disaster assistance under section 1102(c) of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in section 101(a) of division A of Public Law 105–277; formerly 7 U.S.C. 1421 note), but deemed ineligible solely because the individual or entity changed the legal structure of the individual’s or entity’s farming operation.
Pub. L. 106–224, title II, subtitle A, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 398, as amended by Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VIII, § 816], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–57, provided emergency and disaster assistance to farm owners and producers of various farm products in the 1999 marketing year and the 2000 crop year and provided payments in lieu of loan deficiency payments for producers of certain crops in the 2001 crop year.
Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(5) [title I], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–290, provided for an additional amount for specialty crop assistance authorized by section 803(c)(1) of Public Law 106–78, formerly set out in a note below.
Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(5) [title I], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–290, as amended by Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VIII, § 802], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–49, provided for an additional amount for livestock assistance authorized by section 805 of Public Law 106–78, formerly set out in a note below.
Pub. L. 106–78, title VIII, Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1175, as amended by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, § 1000(a)(5) [title I, § 102], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A–291, provided for emergency market loss payments and other disaster assistance to producers of crops and livestock in 1999.
Pub. L. 106–31, title I, § 101, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 61, provided for crop loss assistance for multiyear losses due to disasters in two crop years during the five-crop year period beginning with the 1994 crop year.
Pub. L. 106–31, title I, § 104, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 62, provided an additional amount for the Livestock Assistance Program under Pub. L. 105–277 (see section 101(a) [title XI] of Pub. L. 105–277, formerly set out as a note below).
Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(a) [title XI], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681–42, as amended by Pub. L. 106–31, title III, § 3018, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 106–78, title VIII, § 817(a)(2), title IX, § 913(b), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1184, 1205; Pub. L. 106–387, § 1(a) [title VII, § 754], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–42; Pub. L. 107–25, § 9, Aug. 13, 2001, 115 Stat. 203, provided emergency assistance for crop and livestock feed losses, for market loss assistance, and for other assistance to agricultural producers who incurred losses in the 1998 crop year due to disaster or who incurred multiyear losses in the period including 1998 and preceding crop years.
Pub. L. 102–25, title III, §§ 381–388, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 95–98, as amended by Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (J), (2)(MM), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1098; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (J), (2)(MM), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859, established programs for farmers and ranchers who were activated reservists during Persian Gulf conflict to provide for protection of producer’s crop acreage base for any program crop, waiver of minimum planting requirement, temporary waiver of conservation requirements, relief for borrowers under farm credit provisions, and authority of a spouse or close relative to participate in programs administered by Secretary of Agriculture on behalf of activated reservists.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, § 1148, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3517, directed Secretary of Agriculture to require producers, during sign-up period for commodity programs under section 1421 et seq. of this title in the 1992 calendar year, to complete survey regarding preference of producers, either to increase efficiency of their farming operation or to assist in meeting conservation requirements for farm, for redistribution of any crop acreage bases on each producer’s farm, to compile and analyze data collected from survey to determine potential increases and decreases in State, regional, and national acreage that would be planted to various program crops, potential commodity program costs or savings, and potential impact of such redistribution on competitiveness of United States agriculture in world markets, and, not later than Jan. 31, 1993, to submit to Congress results of survey.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, subtitle E, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3518, as amended by Pub. L. 102–237, title I, § 114(a)(2), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1838, known as Options Pilot Program Act of 1990, authorized Secretary of Agriculture to conduct pilot program for each of the 1991 through 1995 crops of corn and for each of the 1993 through 1995 crops of wheat and soybeans, to determine whether regulated agricultural commodity options trading could be used by producers to obtain protection from fluctuations in market prices of commodities produced and impact of such trading on prices of the commodities, authorized terms and conditions for participation in pilot program, provided for consultation with representatives of commodity futures trading industry, and provided that the pilot program was to be carried out by and through the Commodity Credit Corporation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–127, title I, § 191(i), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 942.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, § 2235(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3960, directed Secretary of Agriculture to develop and implement cost-share program to provide financial assistance to owners of private timber stands that were damaged in 1989 by Hurricane Hugo.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, § 2235(c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3961, provided that benefits or assistance provided under section 2235 of Pub. L. 101–624 or amendments made by such that (enacting provisions set out above and amending provisions set out below) were to be provided only to extent provided for in advance by appropriation acts and authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1991 through 1995.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2515, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4075, authorized Secretary of Agriculture, after concurrence of certain Members of Congress, to rank by priority studies or reports authorized by Pub. L. 101–624 and determine which of those studies or reports was to be completed, but directed Secretary to complete at least 12 of the studies or reports.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2516, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4075, which provided that section could be cited as “Agricultural Program Reporting and Recordkeeping Improvement Act of 1990”, directed Secretary of Agriculture, not later than 240 days after Nov. 28, 1990, to submit to Congress a report containing specific proposals for reducing and simplifying recordkeeping and other paperwork required of producers participating in programs administered by Secretary and directed Secretary to take appropriate action to integrate various data bases of Department relating to agricultural program data, and to facilitate sharing of relevant data among various agencies of Department.
Pub. L. 101–508, title I, § 1302, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–12, as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1301(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 330, provided that, if by June 30, 1992, and by June 30, 1993, the United States had not entered into agricultural trade agreement in Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations under General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) the Secretary of Agriculture was to reconsider and adjust agricultural acreage limitation and price support and production adjustment programs and export promotion levels, as appropriate to protect interests of American agricultural producers and ensure international competitiveness of United States agriculture and that such provisions were to cease to be effective if President certified to Congress that failure to enter into such agreement was result in whole or in part of provisions of 19 U.S.C. 2191, or essentially similar provisions, not applying or in effect not applying during period ending May 31, 1991 (or during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1993, if condition of 19 U.S.C. 2903(b)(1)(B)(i) was satisfied) to implementing bills submitted with respect to such an agreement entered into during applicable period under 19 U.S.C. 2902(b), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–127, title II, § 263(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 974.
Pub. L. 101–220, § 14, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1885, provided that effective only for the 1988 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice, produced by producers that qualified for assistance under section 201(a) of Pub. L. 100–387 or section 101(a) of Pub. L. 101–82 (set out below), if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that any portion of the advance deficiency payment made to producers for such crop under section 1445b–2 of this title had to be refunded, such refund could not be required to be made prior to July 31, 1990.
Pub. L. 100–518, § 3, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2587, directed Secretary of Agriculture to conduct study of schedule of premiums and discounts applied to loans made in accordance with this chapter to determine how premiums and discounts could be used to encourage production, marketing, and exporting of high quality, clean grain, to submit, not later than May 1, 1989, to Congress report on results of such study, to include recommendations with respect to schedule of premiums and discounts in such report, and to establish pilot project for 1989 crops of wheat, soybeans, and feed grains to test effectiveness of such recommendations, and to submit report describing result of project, not later than 180 days after end of 1989 marketing year for feed grains.
Pub. L. 102–229, title I, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1712, as amended by Pub. L. 102–368, title VI, Sept. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 1130, appropriated an additional $1,750,000,000, to remain available until expended, for losses associated with 1990 crops as authorized by Pub. L. 101–624, formerly set out below, and for losses associated with 1991 and 1992 crops under same terms and conditions.
Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §§ 2241–2272, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3962–3977, as amended by Pub. L. 101–508, title I, § 1204(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–12; Pub. L. 102–237, title I, § 114(a)(4)–(16), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1838, 1839, related to emergency crop loss assistance for the 1990 crop of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice, for orchards, and for forest crops, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–354, title I, § 119(c), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3208. Similar provisions for prior crop years were contained in:
Pub. L. 101–82, title I, Aug. 14, 1989, 103 Stat. 565, as amended by Pub. L. 101–134, § 1, Oct. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 101–220, § 9(a)–(c), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1882; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §§ 2231, 2232, 2235(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3958, 3959; Pub. L. 102–237, title VI, § 602(a), (c), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1878.
Pub. L. 100–387, title II, Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 933, as amended by Pub. L. 101–82, title VI, § 602, Aug. 14, 1989, 103 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 101–239, title I, § 1004(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2108.
Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, subtitle E, §§ 1741–1743, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1643, 1644, as amended by Pub. L. 100–203, title I, § 1502, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–27, directed Secretary of Agriculture to conduct study to determine manner in which commodity futures markets and commodity options markets might be used by producers of commodities traded on such markets to provide price stability and income protection, extent of price stability and income protection producers might reasonably expect to receive from such participation, and Federal budgetary impact of such participation compared with cost of applicable established price support programs, to report results of study to Congress on or before Dec. 31, 1989, and in connection with such study, to conduct pilot program with respect to crops of wheat, feed grains, soybean, and cotton.
Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, § 1112, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1267, directed Secretary of Agriculture to appoint a special task force to study and report to Congress, not later than 18 months after Dec. 22, 1981, as to whether farm income protection insurance would provide the basis for an acceptable alternative to the commodity price support, income maintenance, and disaster assistance programs currently administered by the Department of Agriculture for the benefit of farmers.
Act Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title III, § 315, 68 Stat. 905, directed Secretary of Agriculture to study various two-price systems of price support and marketing which could be made applicable to rice and to submit to Congress on or before Mar. 1, 1955, a detailed report thereon.