Back pay

Measuring from the date of termination of employment to the date of trial, wages that an employee lost.

See front pay.

Bargaining unit

A group of employees who have a clear and identifiable community of interests with one another and that are represented by a single labor union in dealings with management such as collective bargaining. The "appropriateness" of a bargaining unit is...


Boycott is a term that is most frequently referenced in the context of antitrust law. It is a concerted refusal to deal with a disfavored purchaser or seller. The word is both a noun and a verb and stems from Captain Charles C. Boycott’s name...

Cafeteria Plan

A cafeteria plan is a written employee benefit program that allows employees to choose at least two benefits from a menu of options. As explained by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), a cafeteria plan must allow employees to choose between...


In contract law, a person's ability to satisfy the elements required for someone to enter binding contracts. For example, capacity rules often require a person to have reached a minimum age and to have soundness of mind.

Captive Audience

A situation in which an employer gives speeches that discourage workers from joining a union or that are in some way anti-union. These speeches may be given to employees on company time and company property and only if they are not coercive. The...

Casual Labor

A term of art used to refer to work that does not further the business of the employer, typically done on a one-time or very sporadic basis.

Because “casual labor” is not defined in any state statute, the...

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex (including pregnancy), and religion in employment, education, and access to public facilities and public...

Closed Shop

An arrangement whereby a place of employment requires membership in a union as a condition of employment.


The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) is a federal statute, passed in 1985, that provides employees and their families the right to continue group health benefits under an employers group health plan.