The Secretary of the Treasury shall deliver to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, upon his request, samples of food, drugs, devices, tobacco products, and cosmetics which are being imported or offered for import into the United States, giving notice thereof to the owner or consignee, who may appear before the Secretary of Health and Human Services and have the right to introduce testimony. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall furnish to the Secretary of the Treasury a list of establishments registered pursuant to subsection (i) of section 360 or section 387e(h) of this title and shall request that if any drugs, devices, or tobacco products manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed in an establishment not so registered are imported or offered for import into the United States, samples of such drugs, devices, or tobacco products be delivered to the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with notice of such delivery to the owner or consignee, who may appear before the Secretary of Health and Human Services and have the right to introduce testimony. If it appears from the examination of such samples or otherwise that (1) such article has been manufactured, processed, or packed under insanitary conditions or, in the case of a device, the methods used in, or the facilities or controls used for, the manufacture, packing, storage, or installation of the device do not conform to the requirements of section 360j(f) of this title, or (2) such article is forbidden or restricted in sale in the country in which it was produced or from which it was exported, or (3) such article is adulterated, misbranded, or in violation of section 355 of this title or the importer (as defined in section 384a of this title) is in violation of such section 384a of this title, or prohibited from introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce under section 331(ll) of this title, or is a controlled substance subject to an order under section 360bbb–8d of this title, or (4) the recordkeeping requirements under section 2223 of this title (other than the requirements under subsection (f) of such section) have not been complied with regarding such article or  (5) such article is being imported or offered for import in violation of section 331(cc) of this title, then any such article described in any of clauses (1) through (5) shall be refused admission, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section. If it appears from the examination of such samples or otherwise that the article is a counterfeit drug, such article shall be refused admission. With respect to an article of food, if importation of such food is subject to, but not compliant with, the requirement under subsection (q) that such food be accompanied by a certification or other assurance that the food meets applicable requirements of this chapter, then such article shall be refused admission. If such article is subject to a requirement under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title and if the Secretary has credible evidence or information indicating that the responsible person (as defined in such section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) has not complied with a requirement of such section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title with respect to any such article, or has not allowed access to records described in such section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title, then such article shall be refused admission, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section. The Secretary of the Treasury shall cause the destruction of any such article refused admission unless such article is exported, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, within ninety days of the date of notice of such refusal or within such additional time as may be permitted pursuant to such regulations, except that the Secretary of Health and Human Services may destroy, without the opportunity for export, any drug refused admission under this section, if such drug is valued at an amount that is $2,500 or less (or such higher amount as the Secretary of the Treasury may set by regulation pursuant to section 1498(a)(1) of title 19) and was not brought into compliance as described under subsection (b).. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall issue regulations providing for notice and an opportunity to appear before the Secretary of Health and Human Services and introduce testimony, as described in the first sentence of this subsection, on destruction of a drug under the sixth sentence of this subsection. The regulations shall provide that prior to destruction, appropriate due process is available to the owner or consignee seeking to challenge the decision to destroy the drug. Where the Secretary of Health and Human Services provides notice and an opportunity to appear and introduce testimony on the destruction of a drug, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall store and, as applicable, dispose of the drug after the issuance of the notice, except that the owner and consignee shall remain liable for costs pursuant to subsection (c). Such process may be combined with the notice and opportunity to appear before the Secretary and introduce testimony, as described in the first sentence of this subsection, as long as appropriate notice is provided to the owner or consignee. Neither clause (2) nor clause (5) of the third sentence of this subsection shall be construed to prohibit the admission of narcotic drugs, the importation of which is permitted under the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act [21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.].
Pending decision as to the admission of an article being imported or offered for import, the Secretary of the Treasury may authorize delivery of such article to the owner or consignee upon the execution by him of a good and sufficient bond providing for the payment of such liquidated damages in the event of default as may be required pursuant to regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury. If it appears to the Secretary of Health and Human Services that (1) an article included within the provisions of clause (3) of subsection (a) of this section can, by relabeling or other action, be brought into compliance with this chapter or rendered other than a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, or (2) with respect to an article described in subsection (a) relating to the requirements of sections  379aa or 379aa–1 of this title,,2 the responsible person (as defined in section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) can take action that would assure that the responsible person is in compliance with section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title, as the case may be, final determination as to admission of such article may be deferred and, upon filing of timely written application by the owner or consignee and the execution by him of a bond as provided in the preceding provisions of this subsection, the Secretary may, in accordance with regulations, authorize the applicant, or, with respect to clause (2), the responsible person, to perform such relabeling or other action specified in such authorization (including destruction or export of rejected articles or portions thereof, as may be specified in the Secretary’s authorization). All such relabeling or other action pursuant to such authorization shall in accordance with regulations be under the supervision of an officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services designated by the Secretary, or an officer or employee of the Department of the Treasury designated by the Secretary of the Treasury.
All expenses (including travel, per diem or subsistence, and salaries of officers or employees of the United States) in connection with the destruction provided for in subsection (a) of this section and the supervision of the relabeling or other action authorized under the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the amount of such expenses to be determined in accordance with regulations, and all expenses in connection with the storage, cartage, or labor with respect to any article refused admission under subsection (a) of this section, shall be paid by the owner or consignee and, in default of such payment, shall constitute a lien against any future importations made by such owner or consignee.
If an article that is a device is being imported or offered for import into the United States, and the importer, owner, or consignee of such article does not, at the time of offering the article for import, submit to the Secretary a statement that identifies the registration under section 360(i) of this title of each establishment that with respect to such article is required under such section to register with the Secretary, the article may be refused admission. If the article is refused admission for failure to submit such a statement, the article shall be held at the port of entry for the article, and may not be delivered to the importer, owner, or consignee of the article, until such a statement is submitted to the Secretary. Subsection (b) does not authorize the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is so held. The article shall be removed to a secure facility, as appropriate. During the period of time that such article is so held, the article shall not be transferred by any person from the port of entry into the United States for the article, or from the secure facility to which the article has been removed, as the case may be.
The Secretary may require, as a condition of granting admission to an article of food imported or offered for import into the United States, that an entity described in paragraph (3) provide a certification, or such other assurances as the Secretary determines appropriate, that the article of food complies with applicable requirements of this chapter. Such certification or assurances may be provided in the form of shipment-specific certificates, a listing of certified facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold such food, or in such other form as the Secretary may specify.
The Secretary shall provide for the electronic submission of certifications under this subsection.
If the Secretary determines that the food safety programs, systems, and standards in a foreign region, country, or territory are inadequate to ensure that an article of food is as safe as a similar article of food that is manufactured, processed, packed, or held in the United States in accordance with the requirements of this chapter, the Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, identify such inadequacies and establish a process by which the foreign region, country, or territory may inform the Secretary of improvements made to such food safety program, system, or standard and demonstrate that those controls are adequate to ensure that an article of food is as safe as a similar article of food that is manufactured, processed, packed, or held in the United States in accordance with the requirements of this chapter.
The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security acting through U.S. Customs and Border Protection, shall promulgate regulations to establish good importer practices that specify the measures an importer shall take to ensure imported drugs are in compliance with the requirements of this chapter and the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.].
Notwithstanding any other provision of Federal law, in implementing this subsection, the Secretary shall only promulgate regulations as described in subparagraph (B).
In establishing the effective date of the regulations under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security acting through U.S. Customs and Border Protection, as determined appropriate by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, provide a reasonable period of time for an importer of a drug to comply with good importer practices, taking into account differences among importers and types of imports, including based on the level of risk posed by the imported product.
The Secretary shall specify the unique facility identifier system that shall be used by registrants under paragraph (1). The requirement to include a unique facility identifier in a registration under paragraph (1) shall not apply until the date that the identifier system is specified by the Secretary under the preceding sentence.
The Secretary, by notice in the Federal Register, may establish exemptions from the requirements of this subsection.
If the Secretary determines that a person subject to debarment as a result of engaging in a pattern of importing or offering for import controlled substances or drugs as described in section 335a(b)(3)(D) of this title, and such pattern is identified by the Secretary as being offered for import from the same manufacturer, distributor, or importer, the Secretary may by order determine all drugs being offered for import from such person as adulterated or misbranded, unless such person can provide evidence otherwise.
This subsection shall not be construed to bear upon any determination of whether an article is a drug within the meaning of section 321(g) of this title, other than for the purposes described in paragraph (1).