antitrust

Abandoned Application

Definition

Refers to the abandonment of a patent or trademark application. An application is removed from the docket of pending applications at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office when the applicant (either directly or through his attorney or agent)...

Agreement

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA meeting of the minds. An agreement is made when two people reach an understanding about a particular issue, including their obligations, duties, and rights. While agreement is sometimes used to mean a...

Antitrust

Overview

Antitrust refers to laws which regulate the concentration of economic power, particularly with regard to trusts and monopolies.

History

Because of fears during the late 1800s that monopolies were dominating America's free market...

Antitrust Laws

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryFederal and state laws created to regulate trade and commerce by preventing unlawful restraints, price-fixing, and monopolies. The laws are intended to promote healthy market competition and encourage the...

Antitrust Violations

Violations of laws designed to protect trade and commerce from abusive practices such as price-fixing, restraints, price discrimination, and monopolization. The principal federal antitrust laws are the Sherman Act (15 U.S.C. §§ 1-7) and the Clayton Act...

Cartel

Definition from Nolo’s Plain-English Law DictionaryA group of independent corporations or other entities that join together to fix prices, control distribution, or reduce competition. For exmple, OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is an...

Clayton Antitrust Act

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, codified at 15 U.S.C. 12-27, outlaws the following conduct:

price discrimination;conditioning sales on exclusive dealing;mergers and acquisitions when they may substantially reduce competition;serving on the board...

Collective Bargaining

Definition

Collective bargaining refers to the negotiation process between an employer and a union comprised of workers to create an agreement that will govern the terms and conditions of the workers' employment.

Overview

The result of collective...

Collusion

A collaborative agreement, usually secret, amongst rivals to prevent open competition through deceptive means in order to gain a market advantage. The parties may collude by agreeing to fix prices, limit or restrict supply, share insider information,...

Collusive Bidding

An agreement among two or more competitors to change the bids they otherwise would have offered absent the agreement. Under Section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act, collusive bidding is per se illegal.

See Antitrust Law for more information.

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